Patent Marking: A Comprehensive Guide


In the world of intellectual property, understanding the requirements for marking patents, copyrights, and trademarks is essential. This article will focus specifically on patent marking and provide you with a clear understanding of how to comply with the patent marking statute.

How to Comply with the Patent Marking Statute

The patent marking statute provides two methods for compliance: traditional patent marking and virtual patent marking. Let’s explore the advantages of each method and the necessary steps to ensure compliance.

Traditional Patent Marking

Traditional patent marking requires clearly identifying the patent number(s) on the product, packaging, or label. However, this method can be burdensome as patent portfolios grow and patents expire, requiring constant updates. It is most suitable when your product is covered by only one patent or if you don’t have a website.

Virtual Patent Marking

Virtual patent marking, introduced in 2013 with the America Invents Act, offers several advantages over the traditional method. By including a web address on the product or packaging, you can direct users to a patent webpage containing up-to-date information about the patent(s) that cover your product. Virtual patent marking eliminates the need for constant updates to your product or packaging, making it the recommended method in most cases.

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Necessary Steps for Compliance

To comply with the patent marking statute, follow these steps:

Step 1: Choose between Traditional or Virtual Patent Marking

Consider whether your product is best suited for traditional or virtual patent marking based on the number of patents it is covered by and the availability of a website.

Step 2: Format for Traditional Patent Marking

If you opt for traditional patent marking, use the specified format for patent numbers on the product, packaging, or label. For utility patents, use “Patent: [patent number]” and for design patents, use “Pat.: [D][patent number].” While alternative verbiage is not required, some companies prefer to include additional information.

Step 3: Guidelines for Virtual Patent Marking

For virtual patent marking, place the words “Patent” or “Pat.” followed by the internet address on the product or packaging. Ensure the patent webpage can be easily accessed by the public without any fees or click-through agreements. On the patent webpage, clearly associate the patented article with the patent number(s) for easy identification.

Step 4: Congratulations, You’re Compliant!

By complying with the patent marking statute, you have provided constructive notice of your patent to the public, creating a trail from the product to the patent via the webpage.

Advantages of Patent Marking Compliance

Complying with the patent marking statute offers significant benefits to patent holders. It allows you to collect damages from alleged infringers, even if they were not aware of your patent. Compliance provides constructive notice to the public, making alleged infringers liable for damages and encouraging them to conduct thorough research to avoid patent infringement.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Why Choose Virtual Patent Marking?

Virtual patent marking offers flexibility and convenience, as the patent webpage does not require constant updates to the product or packaging. The information on the webpage can be easily changed to reflect newly acquired patents, providing a hassle-free solution for patent marking.

Do I Need to Comply with the Patent Marking Statute?

While compliance is not legally required, failure to comply forfeits the benefits of the statute. Alleged infringers will not be liable for damages unless they have received actual notice of the infringement. Additionally, non-compliance increases the risk of being dragged into court through declaratory judgment actions.

Can I Mark Software with a Patent?

Marking software with a patent can be challenging. If the software is provided as a physical item, such as a DVD or CD, mark the item itself or its packaging. For downloadable software, consider including patent marking information in the about page, help section, and splash screen.

How Does Patent Marking Benefit Competitors?

Patent marking helps competitors avoid potential patent infringement liability by providing information about existing patents. It also offers insights into how broadly patent claims are construed, assisting with competitor analysis in product development.

What is False Patent Marking?

False patent marking occurs when incorrect patent numbers are associated with a product. False patent marking can result in legal consequences, including the possibility of being sued by a competitor for statutory damages.


Understanding and complying with the patent marking statute is crucial for patent holders. By choosing the appropriate method, following the necessary steps, and providing constructive notice to the public, you can protect your patent rights, maximize potential damage awards, and ensure compliance with the law.

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For more information about patents and intellectual property, visit Garrity Traina, an expert in the field.